TOPIC 1: THE STEM GENDER GAP TOPIC 1: THE STEM GENDER GAP

It is well-known that, traditionally, women have been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math. Recent studies show that this line is consistent as woman still remain under-represented in R&D in every region worldwide. Some of the latest UNESCO data shows that, in North America and Western Europe, the average representation for woman in R&D is of 32% (with the lowest average found in Luxemburg with only a 21% and in the Netherlands with a 24%). A totally different situation is found in Central and Eastern Europe, where the overall average rises up to 40%. In fact, in FYROM, Latvia and Lithuania, woman represent more than 50% and in Romania, Croatia, Moldova, Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia and Belarus the percentage exceeds a more than decent 40%.

Dispite the positive trend ocurring in Eastern Europe, a wide array of studies indicate a disparity between the number of woman studying science and those who go on board in science careers. In fact, in many regions worldwide, the percentage of woman enrolled in science education programs declines from bachelor to undergraduate or graduate degrees, as well as in further research programs.

A number of reasons, including an absence of mentoring and career support, a lack of female role models or prevailing stereotypes, have been found to explain and understand the trends shown above.

  • Prejudices and bias

Many studies show negative prejudices towards hiring women in STEM research careers. This can be understood as hidden cultural influences: For instance, studies showed that not being used to see women in STEM occupations could form a vision in which those two concepts ("woman" and "STEM") were not connected, therefore provoking a bias. Eventually, the harder it is for women to succeed in STEM careers, the more discouraged they will be to pursue them.

  • STEM degrees and healthcare

In fact, within the STEM realm, gender prejudices can be the cause why women are more likely to work in healthcare occupations rather than in research or in business enterprises: While man are still associated with leadership positions, women are commonly regarded as caregivers. This might lead them to choose occupations related to that sector or to drop out of the work environment to become the family primary housekeeper.

  • Career conciliation

This is, in turn, linked to the conflict that many women face as they try to compatibilize career ambitions with familiar responsibilities. The structures and culture of science careers tend to be less favourable for women when it comes to family conciliation and could even be regarded as an institutional form of prejudice.

Questions

 Do you agree with the ideas showed above? Which of the reasons mentioned is of more importance? Can you think of other causes that explain the gender gap? Share your thoughts!

 

 

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topic 1

How to Prepare For the IELTS Test

IELTS stands for the International English Language Testing System. It is a standardized test of English language efficiency. It is managed by Cambridge Evaluation English, IDP, the British Council, as well as IDP Australia. It was created in 1989. The test is provided to pupils that wish to prove their level of English efficiency to prospective employers as well as educators. There are 2 variations of the exam: the General Training and also Academic variation. The Academic version contains two components: the Academic Writing as well as the Speaking sections.

The Speaking part contains concern cards with topics on them and also key points. This takes about a couple of minutes. The analysis section tests your abstract thinking, which is essential to show in the IELTS. The analysis part of the test includes various kinds of inquiries, each with its own method as well as issues. You can practice with a mock test in order to recognize what type of concerns you will certainly be asked. To improve your general score, prepare with these methods.

Just like all tests, preparing for the IELTS exam can be an overwhelming job, but the best means to find out the language is by exercising. The practice tests will aid you determine your strengths and weaknesses, which will certainly enable you to concentrate your initiatives on areas where you are weak. The test is hard, yet if you are persistent, you will have the ability to pass the exam. As well as keep in mind, there is no shortcut to success. There are no faster ways to success. Simply remember to review as long as you can as well as apply the methods you've learned so far to increase your rating.

If you wish to rack up highly on the IELTS test, you need to plan for it as high as possible. Be practical about how much time you need to devote to studying as well as taking the test. Ideally, you need to have the ability to complete the course in two to three weeks, depending on your degree of English. Likewise, remember that the course can be accelerated relying on your understanding style. It is very important to remain focused as well as regimented to succeed.

It is essential to practice for the IELTS test. It will assist you obtain acquainted with the test style and also will help you plan for the exam. It will certainly also help you examine your paying attention abilities. The test will certainly be split right into three parts. The first five mins will be used to present yourself to the inspector and answer some inquiries regarding the test. The second part has to do with your capacity to speak about an arbitrary subject.

In addition to the reading and composing areas, you must get ready for the Speaking and composing areas. You ought to research for the Talking part before you take the test. The test is not constantly an uncomplicated exam. You need to be aware of your weaknesses. Understanding this is important in preparing for the IELTS. It assists you concentrate your preparation. There are also several sample inquiries that you can find online. Furthermore, you can purchase Official IELTS Practice Products from your neighborhood screening facility.

The Talking and Creating components of the ielts test have 3 components. You will certainly have to speak about a subject in the very first component. During this part, you will certainly need to write your notes, read products regarding that topic, and talk for 2 mins. Those that do well in the talking section can answer the concerns properly. In both parts, you will require to practice a great deal of different type of approaches in the Talking and also writing sections.

The speaking and also creating sections of the IELTS test are one of the most challenging. The first part entails talking with a partner and also answering inquiries. In both components, you will certainly need to utilize the appropriate vocabulary and also grammar. You will certainly need to understand your vocabulary and exactly how to utilize complex words as well as expressions. For the Speaking as well as Writing areas, you should be able to communicate with confidence and fluency. You should contend least 80% of the inquiries deal with.

If you wish to take the IELTS test, you have to make sure you have the standard abilities. The test is a good chance to boost your English language skills. You can additionally pick a career that requires well-versed English. If you choose to work abroad, you will require to have a high degree of English. You ought to likewise think about the task you wish to do. The test is a significant success in your life.
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